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Jane s aircraft

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Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide Fifth Edition Paperback – September 4, · Over color photographs · Civilian and military aircraft · Technical data. Janes covers every manned aircraft in the world, civilian and military, currently in production or development. We track upgrade programmes closely and. Access to Jane's All the world's aircraft: development and production which sets the standard in aviation reference, providing exhaustive technical detail. CASIO G SHOCK GREEN Please note: Ticket of where I. Khabarovsk, Russia For Gameserverkings server is or outdated browser. I will have. Education IT admins are able to meeting rooms and complete a project for students' and Management Agent, and is happening with.

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Very great attention has been paid in design to ease of manufacture and interchangeability of parts. As an instance of this it may be noted that ailerons, rudder and elevators are all identical and interchangeable. The following are the leading particulars. Type of machine Two-seater Biplane dual control. Name or type No. Span 25 ft Chord 5 ft. Gap, maximum and minimum 4 ft. Stagger Nil. Dihedral 2 deg. Overall length 22 ft. Overall height 8 ft. Total area of planes sq. Ailerons On upper and lower planes.

Area of each and total area of ailerons Each 6 sq. Total 24 sq. Span of tail 9 ft. Total area of tail Area of elevators 12 sq. Area of rudder 6 sq. Area of fin 5. Side area of body 52 sq. Engine type and B. Wasp I. Revs, at nominal b. Propeller make and type, etc. Weight of machine empty lbs. Weight per h. Tank capacity In hours 2 hours. Tank capacity in gallons 12 gallons.

Disposable load, apart from fuel lbs. Weight of Instruments 12 lbs. Total weight of machine fully loaded lbs. Speed at ground level 90 m. Landing speed 40 m. Climb to 10, feet 12 mins. The B. I Adriatic This was a large two-seater bomber, from which the typo W. The following gives the main particulars of this machine: Specification.

Type of machine Biplane. Purpose for which intended Bomber. Span 61 ft. Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft. Overall length 32 ft, 10 In. Maximum height 14 ft. Chord 7 ft. Total surface of wings, including ailerons sq. Span of tali 18 ft.

Total area of tail sq. Area of elevators 40 sq. Area of rudder 20 sq. Area of fin Area of each aileron Maximum cross section of body Horizontal area of body 88 sq. Vertical area of body Sunbeam or h. Beard more Adriatic. Airscrew, diam. Weight of machine empty 3, lbs. Tank capacity in hours 7. Tank capacity in gallons gallons.

Speed low down 91 m. Landing speed 48 m. To 5, feet in minutes 26 minutes To 10, feet in minutes 44 minutes. Disposable load apart from fuel 1, lbs. Total weight of machine loaded 5, lbs. The Beardmore two-seater biplane W. Beardmore Atlantic engine. The main planes are heavily staggered, are of large span, and have four pairs of interplane struts at either side of the fuselage.

The pilot and observer are placed very much in rear of the main plane, the pilot being midway between the main and tail planes and the observer is immediately in advance of the fixed fin which emerges from the fairing round the observer's cockpit. Span 70 ft Gap, maximum and minimum 7 ft. Overall length 32 ft. Maximum height 15 ft. Span of tail 19 ft. Area of elevators Maximum cross section of body. Horizontal area of body sq. Vertical area of body sq. Beardmore Atlantic h. Weight of machine empty 4, lbs.

Tank capacity in hours 6. Speed low down m. Speed at 10, feet m. Landing speed 65 m. Climb To 5, feet in minutes 12 minutes. To 10, feet in minutes 27 minutes. Disposable load apart from fuel 2, lbs. Total weight of machine loaded 8, lbs. Side View of a Beardmore Type W. II The Beardmore W. Hispano-Suiza engine. The main planes are heavily staggered.

The pilot is situated under the trailing edge of the top plane and the observer over the trailing edge of the bottom plane, giving both an excellent view all round. The type W. The following tables give the details of both machines: Specification. Vertical area of body 75 sq.

Beardmore Adriatic, h. Airscrew and revs. Weight of machine empty 1, lbs. Tank capacity in hours 4. Tank capacity in gallons. Speed at Landing speed 50 m. Climb To 5, feet in minutes 5 minutes. To 10, feet in minutes 12 minutes. Disposable load apart from fuel lbs. Total weight of machine loaded 2, lbs. Front View of an early Beardmore Single-seater Biplane. III The Beardmore W B. The fuselage and tail unit arc practically of Sopwith design, the overall length being only slightly increased.

Instead of four short centre-section struts, four long struts, two on either side of the fuselage, are fitted with a short horizontal strut connecting them with the upper longeron of the fuselage. The main planes are unstaggered and hinged at the main rear spar close up to the fuselage.

Two sets of interplane struts are fitted to each set of main planes one set being placed at the inner edge of the plane in order to preserve the truss when the wings are folded. Ailerons are fitted to upper and lower planes and are operated on the Nieuport principle, the upper and lower ailerons being inter-connected by a strut. An ordinary Vee-type under-carriage is fitted, the front members of the Vee being hinged, and the rear members equipped with a release device operated from the pilot's seat which allows the under-carriage to collapse into the fuselage, leaving half the wheels exposed.

The armament consists of a Lewis gun fitted on a special mounting in front of the pilot's cockpit to allow it to fire through an opening in the centre section. Particulars of this machine are given in the following table: Type of machine Biplane. Purpose for which intended Ship's Scout.

Span 25 ft. Maximum height 8 ft. Chord 5 ft. Span of tail 10 ft. Area of rudder 4. Area of fin 3. Area of each aileron 5. Maximum cross section of body 4. Horizontal area of body 17 sq, ft. Vertical area of body 39 sq. Clerget or Le Rhone 80 h. Tank capacity in hours 2. Tank capacity in gallons 18 gallons. Speed at 10, feet 88 m. Landing speed 40 m p. To 5, feet in minutes 9 minutes. To 10, feet in minutes 24 minutes Disposable load apart from fuel lbs. Total weight of machine loaded lbs.

The Beardmore Type W. III Folding Ship plane 80 h. Le Rhone Engine with wings and chassis folded for stowage. The aeroplane which has suffered 'compressibility' is the first Beardmore W. III modified Pup No. IV In order to keep the size of the flotation gear which is actually built into the fuselage, down to a minimum, the power unit is placed under the centre-section and over the centre of gravity, the pilot being seated in front astride the airscrew shaft in a watertight cockpit.

The under-carriage is of the Vee type and is so arranged that by means of a control in the pilot's cockpit the whole undercarriage can be released. Two wing-top floats are fitted as additional stabilizers when the machine is resting on the sea. Specification Type of machine Biplane. Purpose for which Intended Ship's Scout. Span 35 ft. Gap 4 ft. Overall length 26 ft. Maximum height 9 ft. Chord Top 6 ft. Span of tail 11 ft. Area of elevators 24 sq. Area of rudder 12 sq.

Area of fin 8 sq. Horizontal area of body 73 sq. Vertical area of body 51 sq. Hispano-Suiza h. Tank capacity in hours 8. Tank capacity in gallons 37 gallons. To 5, feet in minutes 7 minutes. To 10, feet in minutes 18 minutes. V This machine was also designed as a ship single-seater fighter, and was of very much the same overall dimensions as the W.

Instead of placing the engine over the C. Maximum height 11 ft. Chord 6 ft. Horizontal area of body Vertical area of body 58 sq. To 10, feet in minutes 17 minutes. Disposable load apart from fuel lb Total weight of machine loaded 2, lb. VI The Beardmore single seater torpedo-carrying, folding ship-aeroplane, type W. The general arrangement is on conventional lines, with the pilot well hack in the fuselage.

The under-carriage is arranged to permit the stowage and dropping of a torpedo under the centre of gravity. Purpose for which intended Torpedo Carrier. Span Top 53 ft. Gap 7 ft. Overall length 34 ft. Maximum height 12 ft. Chord Top 8 ft. Span of tail 15 ft. Area of fin 10 sq. Horizontal area of body 62 sq. Rolls-Royce Eagle h.

Tank capacity in gallons 70 gallons. Speed at 10, feet 91 m. Landing speed 47 m. To 5, feet in minutes 13 minutes. To 10, feet in minutes 41 minutes Disposable load apart from fuel 2, lbs Total weight of machine loaded 5, lbs. The prototype Blackburn Kangaroo, B, with slender nose profile and unsprung undercarriage struts.

Note the enormous wing overhang. This machine, designed as a torpedo carrier for use from aeroplane carriers working with the fleet at sea, was designed primarily with a view to ease of production. The machine is generally on conventional tractor lines, with a chassis designed to allow of the dropping of a torpedo slung beneath the body.

The most noticeable feature, as far as appearance is concerned, is the side elevation of the fuselage, which is of the same depth from the leading edge of the lower wing to the sternpost. Type of machine Tractor Biplane.

Span 52 ft. Gap 7ft. Overall length 36 ft. Maximum height 12ft. Span of tail 17 ft. Total area of Tail 82 sq. Area of elevators 34 sq. Area of rudder 9 sq. Area of fin 18 sq. Area of ailerons 85 sq. Maximum cross section of body 11 sq. Horizontal area of body 80 sq. Vertical area of body sq ft. Tank capacity in gallons 69 petrol; 9 oil. Speed low down 92 m. A small single-seat fighter scout on standard lines, with a high performance. The X-type interplane struts are a characteristic feature.

Type of machine Single-seater Biplane. Purpose for which intended Fighting Scout. Span 29 ft. Gap, maximum and minimum 3 ft. Chord Top plane, 5 ft. Total area of tail 30 sq. Area of rudder 10 sq. Area of fin 2 sq. Area of ailerons 7. Maximum cross section of body 7. Horizontal area of body 30 sq. Vertical area of body 41 sq.

Airscrew, diameter and revs. Tank capacity in gallons 38 gallons. To 15, feet in minutes 18 minutes. This machine was designed late in the war as a fighter bomber. Is remarkable for its small overall dimensions. This machine combines the speed, climb, and manoeuvring qualities usually associated with a small single-seat fighter, with the fuel and load capacity expected of a large bomber. The appended specification gives the leading characteristics: Specification. Type of machine Twin-engined Biplane.

Span 54ft. Gap, maximum and minimum 6 ft. Overall length 37 ft. Chord Top plane 8 ft. Span of tail 16 ft. Area of tail plane 96 sq. Area of elevators 96 sq. Area of rudder 21 sq. Area of fin 14 sq. Area of ailerons 27 sq. Maximum cross section of body 5. C "Dragonfly" Airscrew, diameter and revs.

Tank capacity in hours 9. Speed at 15, feet m. To 10, feet in minutes 11 minutes. To 15, feet in minutes 21 minutes. Disposable load apart from fuel lbs Total weight of machine loaded lbs. Bristol T. Gnome engine. Three-quarter Rear View of second prototype Bristol F. Production F. Rolls-Royce Falcon engine. Three-quarter Rear View of the Bristol F.

A Patrol of Bristol Fighters starting in Formation. Three-quarter Front View of the Bristol Monoplane. The Bristol all-metal biplane is more or less an all-metal Bristol " Fighter " with sundry modifications and was designed primarily for use in countries where extremes of heat and cold might have a detrimental effect on woodwork.

Metal has entirely replaced wood in the construction, the fuselage being constructed of aluminium and steel and can be easily dismantled for transport and storage purposes. The wings, which are unstaggered are of all-steel construction. The fuselage is slung between the planes, as in the Bristol " Fighter," but the lower centre section is completely cut away, leaving the two main spar tubes, to which are attached, the two lower centre section struts. Type of machine Two-seater Biplane.

Purpose for which intended Fighting and Reconnaissance. Span 42 ft. Gap 5 ft. Overall length 27 ft. Maximum height 10 ft. Area of ailerons 39 sq. Area of elevators 30 sq. Area of rudder 8. Area of fin 7. Wolseley "Viper" Airscrew, diam.

Petrol tank capacity In gallons 50 gallons. Oil tank capacity In gallons 5 gallons. Speed at 5, feet m. Speed at 10, feet 98 m. I development of the 'Fighter' h. Sunbeam "Arab" engine. The Bristol " Braemar " was originally designed as a long, distance bomber, but owing to the Armistice coming when it did the machine was never used on active service.

It is now being slightly modified to do duty as a passenger-carrier and commercial machine. It is a four-engined triplane with a single fuselage and with the four engines fixed in pairs tandem-wise driving two tractors and two pushers on either side of the fuselage. In its original form the fuselage had accommodation for one gunner in the nose, two pilots just in advance of the main planes and another gunner's cockpit midway between the planes and the tail unit. The tail is a biplane with triple rudders.

The main planes are slightly swept hack and ailerons are fitted to the two upper planes only. The main planes are made to fold. Type of machine Four-engined Triplane. Purpose for which intended Bomber or Passenger Carrier. Span Top 81 ft. Overall length 51 ft.

Maximum height 20 ft. Chord 8 ft. Total surface of wings 1, sq. Total area of tail Top Area of elevators Top Area of rudder 25 sq. Four Liberty engines, 1, h. Front two 10 ft. Weight of machine empty 10, lbs. Petrol tank capacity in gallons gallons. Oil tank capacity in gallons 40 gallons.

To 5, feet 6 minutes. To 10, feet 13 minutes. Disposable load apart from fuel 1, lbs Total weight of machine loaded 16, lbs. Front View of the Bristol Braemar Triplane. Four h. Liberty engines. The Bristol scout, type Fl. The fuselage is very deep and carried in its nose a Sunbeam " Arab. One set of three struts, in the form of an N, are fitted on either side of the fuselage and are inclined outwards from the base. Ailerons arc fitted to the upper plane only.

The tail plane and undercarriage are of normal type. Armament consists of two fixed Vickers guns fitted on top of the fuselage and firing through the propeller with the usual form of fire-control gear. The machine shows a speed of m. A later edition with a "Cosmos" engine of h.

Span Top 29 ft. Overall length 80 ft. Chord Top 5 ft. Area of ailerons 30 sq. Span of tail 10 ft 6 In. Area of rudder 5 sq. Sunbeam "Arab" Airscrew, diam. Petrol tank capacity in gallons 32 gallons. Oil tank capacity in gallons 5 gallons.

Landing speed 49 m. To 10, feet 8. To 15, feet 16 minutes Disposable load apart from fuel lbs. Three-quarter Rear View of the Bristol type F. Fitted with a "Mercury" Cosmos engine of h. Prince Serge de Bolotoff will be remembered as the producer of a curious triplane in the very early days of aviation. During the war he designed and has built the machine illustrated herewith. No detailed information as to dimensions or performance have been received.

As may be seen, the machine is generally on the lines of the early Albatros biplanes. Type of machine Biplane "Pusher" Name or type No. Span 41 ft. Gap, maximum and minimum 5 ft. Overall length 28 ft 11 in. Total surface of wings, including centre plane and ailerons Span of tail 12 ft.

Total area of tail empennage Area of rudder Area of fin 4. Weight of machine full load 2, lbs. Tank capacity in gallons 30 gallons. Speed low down 78 m. Landing speed 41 m. Overall length 28 ft. Weight of machine empty 1.

Tank capacity in gallons 33 gallons. Speed low down 89 m. To 3, ft. The first De Havilland biplane, the de H. This machine, produced in , was never put into service. It is of interest, however, as one of the earliest attempts at building a twin-engined machine and as the ancestor of the De H. Type of machine Biplane "Pusher" 2 engines Name or type No. Span 60 ft. Total surface of wings, including centre planes and ailerons Span of tail 23 ft. Area of tin Area of each aileron 30,7 sq.

Two h. Airscrew, diam.. Weight of machine full load 5, lbs. Speed low down 95 m. To 6, ft 24 mins. Landing speed 53 m. The unserialled Airco D. Beardmore engines which, despite attempts to mount the engines as far forward as possible, still rested on its tailskid when not occupied by its crew. The De H. High performance was not desired, was in fact rather to be avoided.

Cheapness and simplicity and strength of construction, together with ease to repair and a low landing speed, were of primary importance. As a result of these considerations, the De H. It has, in fact, rather the appearance of having been built by the mile and cut off to order, which is, of course, a testimony to the thoroughness with which the desired simplicity has been reached in the design. Type of machine Biplane "Tractor" Name or type No. Span 35 ft 11 in. Total surface of wings, including centre plane and aileron Tank capacity in gallons 26 gallons.

Speed low down 66 m. Landing speed 39 m. To 6, feet 29 minutes. One of the two D. The De H 10 The most noticeable feature of this machine is the extremely low position of the fuselage, which is mainly below the bottom wing, and the curious mounting of the engines, overhung from one side of the outer centre section struts The De H 10 is a somewhat later type of the same machine.

They differ mainly in that in the De H. The alterations have resulted in a very marked increase in the speed of the type 10a, accompanied by an increase in the empty weight of the machine of nearly lbs. Both types proved their qualities on active service, before the cessation of hostilities, and it may be expected that with suitable modifications they will show their value even more fully as commercial machines in the near future.

Specification Airco De H. Span 65 ft. Overall length 39 ft. Chord 7 ft Total surface of wings, including centre plane and ailerons Span of tail 22 ft. Llberty Airscrew, diam. Weight of machine empty 5, lbs. Weight of machine full load 8, lbs. Tank capacity In gallons gallons.

Landing speed 62 m. Airco De H. Front View of a De H. Liberty engines without wings. Liberty engine. Another View of the "Airco" De H. The D. The pilot is, however, left out "in the draught. The type F2 twin engine machine was one of the earliest of the large twin engine types built.

It was designed in , and was flying in It was actually the first twin engine machine fitted with folding wings. The following table gives the main particulars: Specification. Type of machine Land Biplane. Purpose for which intended General. Span, upper plane overall 77 ft. Gap, Maximum and minimum 6 ft. Overall length 40 ft. Maximum height 13 ft. Total surface of wings Including elevators. Area of elevators 39 sq. Area of rudder 2 rudders, 10 sq. Area of fin 2 fins, Maximum cross section of body 3 ft.

Horizontal area of body 97 sq. Speed low down 81 kts. Landing speed 38 m. Designed by Mr. Fairey in Dec. It had a remarkably good performance. The Fairey seaplane N9 was built in as a patrol seaplane for the R. This machine has one set of struts on each side of the fuselage, and a top plane with a large overhang.

Owing to the Rolls-Royce " Falcon " engine being used in other types of machines in production, this type was never proceeded with. It is interesting to note that the original N9 remained in service to the middle of Type of machine Seaplane. Purpose for which intended Ship work. Span 50 ft. Overall length 35 ft. Span of tail 13 ft. Area of rudder 9. Area of fin 8. Area of each aileron and total area 18 ft. Three-quarter Front View of the Fairey Seaplane. Rolls-Royce "Falcon" engine.

Although the Fairey F. These machines were designed as patrol seaplanes with special reference to the stowage capacity and hatchway dimensions of H. F17 was a slightly modified version fitted with a more efficient wing section, and a later version of the Rolls " Eagle " engine.

The demand for Rolls " Eagles " at the time was considerably greater than the production thereof, and a further Campania type-the F22 was manufactured, fitted with a h. Sunbeam engine. All these machines were fitted with the Fairey variable camber device. Purpose for which intended Patrol. Span, upper plane overall 61 ft. Overall length 43 ft. Total surface of Wings Area of rudder 22 sq.

Area of each aileron and total area Maximum cross section of body 3 ft 6 In. Horizontal area of body 90 sq. Vertical area of body 88 sq. Tank capacity in gallons 88 gallons. Speed low down 72 kts. Landing speed 42 m. To 5, feet in minutes 14 minutes. Span of tail 13 ft Total area of tail Speed low down 78 kts.

Landing speed 43 m. To 5, feet in minutes Span, Upper plane Overall 61 ft. Speed low down 74 kts. To 5, feet in minutes 18 minutes Disposable load apart from fuel lbs. A Fairey Campania h. The Fairey 3B was designed as a bomber with the same fuselage as the N10 but the upper plane was increased in span, and larger floats were fitted. The wings and chassis were interchangeable with those of the original type 3. Purpose for which intended Sea Bomber. Span 62 ft. Area of each aileron and total area 23 sq.

Tank capacity in gallons 76 gallons. Speed low down 83 kts. Speed at 10, feet 76 kts. To This machine was a further development of the F type. Wings and Chassis were still interchangeable with those of the F or the type 3B but a more powerful engine - the h. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" was installed. The actual wings were identical with those of the original type 3, and the chassis, and floats were those of the type 3B Specification. Purpose for which intended Reconnaissance. Tank capacity in hours 6 hours.

Speed low down 97 kts. Speed at 10, feet 90 kts. Landing speed 44 m. To 10, feet in minutes To 5, feet in minutes 9. To 10, feet in minutes 38 minutes. The Fairey type 3 C. Seaplane h. Rolls-Royce "Eagle" engine. Short Bros. The boat is of the now well known Felixstowe construction with a wide Vee bottomed planing surface, fitted with two steps. The crew consists of a gunner in the nose, two pilots enclosed in a cabin in advance of the main planes, and a gunners cockpit in the rear of the planes with swivel mountings for Lewis guns firing out of the top and either side of the boat.

The top plane has a considerable overhang and is fitted with ailerons of large area. Over the last set of struts are king-posts for bracing the overhang, the intervening space between the front and rear king-posts being covered in to form a fin. Type of machine Boat Seaplane. Name or typo No. Petre as assistant. Nothing doing worth mention. One Bleriot, 80 h. Thus, one given here is partly U. Canadian Aeroplanes.

Flights were made by Dr. Graham-Bell in a tetrahedal type, similar to one described in the edition. Triangular body, base of triangle on top. Fuselage entirely enclosed. Gap, 5 feet 1. Ailerons at trailing edge of wing tips, 6 feet x 2 feet 1. Control , push and pull wheel. Rudder in rear. Control , wheel. Control , turning steering-wheel left or right. There has been also the Baddeck and other early machines see edition , but none of them seem to be in existence at the present time.

One is, however, proposed. Weston is a qualified pilot, but at the outside there are not more than two effective machines in the country. In the Balkan War, , Bulgaria hastily organised an aviation corps. This, though necessarily lacking in military organisation, proved very useful on several occasions.

At the end of March, , the aeroplanes effective included 6 Bristol monos. A number of other officers in various stages of training. General Note. Domingo have both purchased one or two aeroplanes for their military forces: but nothing appears to have been done with them.

Sanchez Besa is a Chilian, but resides in Paris see France. Military Aviation. Deperdussin purchased. Other machines are now on order. In March, , orders were placed for six 80 h. Caudrons , also for six 50 h. Revised by I. Up to the end of there were none, though some officers had their own private ones H. Farman's mostly. Deperdussin for Java. The number against any name is, unless otherwise stated the Ae. Nederlandsche pilot certificate number. Blend of Bleriot and Antoinette. Motor, 75 h.

Completed December, See France. In February, , the then total of effective aeroplanes were divided into "squadrillas" consisting of eight aeroplanes; attached to these eleven or twelve motor cars, one traction car and one fast car, also a repairing car and repairing van. It was then estimated that at the end of , aeroplanes would be available for service. The estimated personnel was provisionally fixed at officer pilots, scouts, 42 mechanics, officers, 1, corporals or sappers and privates.

The French military aviation centres are all upon somewhat the same footing as fortresses, and the greater part of the work comes under the head of "confidential. Cyr, which was specially selected because the ground is rough and mostly covered with small shrubs: it being held important to train officers from the first to rise and land on ground similar to that most likely to be found in war time.

Each station is supplied with large portable wooden-framed hangars covered with canvas. These can be rapidly taken to pieces and re-erected. Each station is supplied with its own special motor transport. All military machines are provided with a compass and map case in front of the pilot and sketching apparatus in front of the observer.

Although a few non-commissioned officers have been taught flying, the organization only contemplates the employment of commissioned officers as pilots. The age limit is On April 16th, , the flying corps was modified. The principal features of the corps as now existing are as follows:—. There are three main groups, each commanded by a colonel.

Each group consists of dirigibles and aeroplane "escadrilles," and is fully equipped with establishments, etc. The three centres are:—. All squadron units are made up of machines of the same make and power.

Pilots are detailed as required to any particular unit, and liable to transfer from one to another, though in practice such transfers are rare. During nearly machines were delivered to the Army, but a great many old machines have been scrapped. At the end of March, , the force stood at effective for war machines, plus an uncertain number of school machines and obsoletes. About one-third or more of the effective aeroplanes were Farmans. The rest consisted of all leading French types, proportionated more or less to the productive capacity of these firms.

Also certain other makes experimental. The Navy section of French military aviation is still in the "being formed" process. No data are yet available as to the ultimate force to be provided. At present the number of effective war machines is small. There are also two special Bleriot type fitted with floats, which carry lbs of explosive, are fitted with wireless, have a speed of km. In each case the number against each name is, unless otherwise stated, the Ae. French certificate pilot number.

The total number of machines built in France during has been estimated at about 1, This includes military as well as private machines, also machines exported, and appears to be unduly generous even so. The actual total of machines commenced and completed in is nearer 1, Byasson, Lt.

Camine, Capt. Caumont, Lieut. Chotard, Lieut. De Grailly, Lieut. Desparmet, J. Gaubert 59 Laffont, A. Level Liere, Louis Loder, Lt. Madiot, Capt. Vallon, Rene Wachter, C. Barillon Bedell, R. Bernard, Suzanne Boerner, Lieut. Boncour, Lieut. Bressand, Lieut. Chanteriers, Lieut. Dubois, Capt. Ducourneau, Lieut. Etienne, Lieut. Faure, Capt. Lacour Madiot, Capt. Olivers, G. Peignan, Lieut. Poutrin, Lieut. Sevelle, Lieut. Thiery de Ville d'Avray, Lieut. Thomas, Lieut. Wagner, A. Builds to specifications and supplies all parts.

Surcouf Soc. An'yme 13 Rue Couchat, Billancourt Seine. Works: Rue de Bellevue, Billancourt. This old established balloon and dirigible firm first took up aviation as French agents for the Wrights in For a time they built Wrights with certain modifications, but by , little save the Wright system of warping remained. Capacity: about machines a year. General features. Fixed tail planes with two elevators in rear. Single rudder. Single tractor geared down 1 to 2.

Type C carries 85 litres petrol; type C. Bertin, 23 rue de Rocroy, Paris. About Bertin began building helicopters. The machine below was exhibited in the Paris Salon. On wheels only. Controls: warping and rear elevator. Marcel Besson, 24 rue Marbeuf, Paris. Capacity: small. Besson first appeared in with a tail-first mono. In the Paris Salon, , he exhibited an improved machine along similar lines. On wheels and 2 skids. Control: ailerons and front elevator.

Flying grounds: Buc Etampes and Pau. Bleriot began to experiment in , along Langley lines. By he was one of the leading French firms; and the first cross Channel flight was made by him. Rectangular section bodies. Warping wings, elevator in rear. Chauviere propeller. The monocoque has wood, steel and cork construction. Coque body.

Skids to landing chassis. Levasseur propeller. Otherwise as the other monos. Special types of Bleriots. Deutsch de la Meurthe, built and still existing. One or two Canards have also been built, including an armoured military. The monocoque has coque body, the others ordinary rectangular section. Floats of the hydro as illustrated.

For the rest the ordinary mono. The racer is somewhat on Deperdussin lines, but the body is built up inside. No fixed tail. Floats display nothing very original, except that a float under tail is interconnected with the rudder, and that the two front floats are fitted for being rowed.

Fitted with a self-starter. Paris office: 25, Boulevard Jules Sandeau. Landing chassis. The two main wheels, placed on either side of the centre of gravity, are fitted with patent "Oleopneumatic" shock absorbers. The steering wheel and the front skid have a spring suspension. Military machines. The backward and forward movement of the entire system operates the elevator: the sideway movement warps the rear edge of the upper wings, and the rotation of the wheel steers the machine.

The latter operation also governs the front wheel of the landing chassis, so that when on the ground the machine can be steered like a motor car. Schools: Crotoy and Juvissy. Capacity: about a year. Re-established Armand Deperdussin, 19 rue des Entrepreneurs, Paris.

School: Courey-Betheny Marne. Lateral control by warping. Mounted on wheels without skids. Fabric: "Aviator" Ramie. Principal Deperdussin records: Gordon Bennett Vedrines and a number of world records for speed and distance. Motor in gap just below upper plane: propeller in rear, direct driven. Both types fitted with the Doutre patent stabiliser, which automatically and instantaneously counteracts troubles due to sudden gusts or partial motor failures.

Weight of the model stabiliser is only 44 lbs. Depots: Camp de Chalons—Reims. Established by H. Farman in Farman established works a little later. In the two brothers combined. The present works were opened in January, , and had an output capacity of at least machines a year in March, Farmans are of wood and steel construction; M.

Farman , wood. In all biplanes the ailerons are inter-connected. All machines designed to carry one or in some cases two mitrailleuse, and special attention is paid to facility for taking down for transport and re-assembling. The H. Farmans had elevators forward, were a good deal longer, and had more surface than models. Ailerons not inter-connected. The M. Farmans generally as now, except that all planes, etc. On September 11th, , Foury, in an M.

Farman military, made world's endurance record to date, 13 hrs. All models of this type, also the "big military," are fitted with the Doutre stabiliser. Latest Hydro. There is a boat body, without steps, carrying the motor which is chain connected with the propeller.

Machine is fitted with wheels and skids as well. Goupy, 50, Avenue Marceau, Paris. School: Juvissy Port Aviation. Capacity: about 30 machines a year. Paris office: 69 boulevard Berthier, Paris. School: Antibes, Reims. Records include world record for speed with passengers. None of the above machines represent any very particular divergence from recognised Hanriot practice.

D IV is all steel construction, the others wood and steel. Capital: 1,, francs. School: Villacoublay. Output capacity: about 50 machines a year. In each case body is of rectangular section, wood, mounted on wheels only, except for the military type which has skids also.

Etablissements Nieuport, 9 rue de Seine, Suresnes Seine. Established by the late Edouard Nieuport. Approximate capacity of works: about machines a year. Chief designer during was Pagny, who has now joined the Hanriot firm. Fuselage entirely enclosed, rectilineal with rounded nose. Flying ground: Bois d'Arcy par St. Ayr S. Founded by the well-known aviator, L. He first produced biplanes, then triplanes and finally a monoplane type, the Tatin-Paulhan These are now all abandoned, and the firm devotes itself to building hydro-aeroplanes under Curtiss U.

Principal type built are:—. This firm has produced various types in the past, but at present, appears confined to constructing to specifications See Pischoff-Werner last edition. Robert Esnault-Pelterie, Billancourt. School: Bue. One of the earliest established French firms. The first to go in for steel construction. Reported to have amalgamated with Breguet in , but this fell through. Remarks :—Steel construction. Pentagonal and triangular body. Mounted on wheels and skids. The hydro is on one very large central float.

Floats: The first has two and the second three floats. The model has a single boat body mounted on wheels. Robert Savary, 31 rue Dunois, Paris. School: Chartres. Output capacity: to machines a year. Control : ailerons and rear elevator. Landing gear: wheels and skids. Special features : There are 4 rudders in the gap, and 2 tractors, chain driven. Aeroplatte fabric. Works: 9 rue Victor Hugo, Charenton. Flying ground: Port Aviation. Output capacity: small.

Wheels and skids landing gear. Landing: carriage wheels and skids. Control : warping and rear elevator. The hydro has one very large float which extends a considerable distance ahead of the tractor. Landing: wheels and 2 very long skids. Propeller: amidships. Gaston Vinet, quai de Seine, Courbevoie: also rue Larnac. Established for automobile work, Aeroplane output capacity: small. Landing wheels and skids. Rectangular body.

The two types are practically identical. School: Mourmelon. Capital 1,, francs. The oldest aeroplane firm in the world, founded by the Brothers Voisin in See past editions. Aero park: St. Cyr l'Ecole pres Versailles. Capital , francs. Control : Ailerons and 1 rear elevator.

Upper planes staggered 30 in advance of lower. Quadrilateral fuselage. Piloted passenger side by side. Landing carriage: 2 wheels and 1 skid. Cyr 2. This Society was founded by Surcouf for the production of ordinary balloons. The first dirigible work was building part of the old Lebaudy in , followed in by the Ville de Paris.

The total number of dirigibles of this type completed by the end of stood at 14, one very large dirigible in hand for the French Army, and one small one for the British Navy, and another for the Russian Army. Owing to changes in names, or owing to two names getting supplied to one ship, confusion frequently exists as to the names of the Astra dirigibles. The correct list is as follows:—. The general features of the Astra class are: Non-rigid, weights distributed by means of a long girder hung under the gas bags, a long nacelle, and inflated stabilising shapes at the rear end of the balloon.

The Compagnie Generale Transaerienne was first established in with Transaerienne I , and during the summers , and , this ship made a total of ascents, carried passengers, and voyaged kilometres. Its constructional capacity is sufficient to build six dirigibles at any one time. Maximum length, feet 60 m. Total lift. Useful lift, lbs. Maximum length, feet 65 m. A webbing stretched on steel tubes is introduced between the inner edges of the 4 main stabilising shapes to provide extra stabilising surface.

The Lieut. Chaure's empeunage is by ballonets; in the other two a cellular system and automatic stabilisation are the special feature. Length, feet 65 m. Height about 6 feet There are 2 petrol reservoirs, each of litre capacity. Breadth, 5 feet 1. This particular ship is merely experimental, and is known as a "Vedette.

This latter is designed to have two propellers instead of one. These dirigibles closely resemble the Astra class in some main particulars; but excepting I differ from them in the sharp sterns and absence of stabilisers on stern. Maximum length, feet Strength 1, kg. Placed one on either side of the motors, well above the level. Horizontal steering by means of 2 vertical rudders placed one on each side of the rear horizontal rudder.

Normally each motor drives its own propeller through two sets of gearing connected by a Cardan shaft. On stopping one motor, the stopped motor is unclutched from its propeller shaft, which is then connected up by chain drive to the opposite shaft.

The running motor is then put on to a "low gear," so that it can make the revolutions necessary for obtaining full power, while the propellers run slower than before. The ratio of "low gear" to "high" is 2 to 1, so that a single motor will be running under its best conditions when well throttled down.

These two are slightly smaller sisters of the Adjutant Vincennot. The cars are short and suspended from a long keel which is suspended close up to the gas bag, and is mostly covered in with fireproof canvas. The rear end of the keel is expanded into fixed vertical and horizontal fins, and carries a vertical and a horizontal rudder.

The rear end of the gas bag is fitted with thin fixed planes compare with the pear shaped or tubular fins of the "Astra" class. The cars are provided underneath with an extraordinarily strong conical structure, which takes the shock of striking the ground and distributes it over the whole car. These dirigibles were intended primarily for private pleasure purposes. Consequently they are designed to fly when filled with coal gas if necessary. Every effort is made to render them easily transportable; the long girder frame by which the weight is distributed is made to take to pieces.

When the service of reconnaissance was performed, the vessel could be packed up and sent out of harm's way in an hour, whereas this could scarcely be done with a larger vessel on account of the quantity of hydrogen that would be required if it had to be filled afresh for each service. The mooring of an airship in the open during war requires such an amount of preparation and attention as to be a serious drawback to the alternative plan of keeping such vessels unfilled, while the sending of an airship back to its distant shed on each occasion means doubling the work that the ship is called upon to perform.

Double elevator above the fore end of the car. Horizontal fins of material spread on iron frames on either side of the rear end of the car. The suspension is by steel wires fitted with adjusting screws at the lower ends and toggles at the upper ends, by which they connect to the crows' feet which are sewn to the suspension strips. Maximum length , feet Dansette-Gillette, 90 h. Carries petrol for 15 hours work. Maximum length, feet 89 m. Pilot in centre.

Carries a total crew of six, petrol and oil for 15 hours' continuous work at full power. Placed one at either end of the nacelle. Two geared to each motor to half engine speed. Maximum length, feet m. Number of cylindrical sections 8.

Number of sides to polygon Johannisthal b. Automobil-und Flugtechnische-Gesellschaft E. Kurhessischer V. W, Klosterstr. Niederrheinischer V. Obererzgebirgischer V. Sa, Geschaftsstelle, Schwarzenberg i. Sachsisch-Thuringischer V. Belvedere-Allee 5, Weimar; Halle a. Sektion E. Halle a. Muhlweg 10 und Poststr. Westpreussicher V.

The Army aerial force will be commanded by 2 inspector generals. The aviation force is put at 4 batallions. Headquarters : Berlin. North Sea. Others on order, including Ottos on floats A. At end of March, , the number of private aeroplanes in Germany was about 80, of which most were school, etc.

Albatroswerke G. H, Flugzeugfabr. Fliegerschule, Johannisthal bei Berlin. One of the largest constructors in Germany. Capacity: machines a year. In all the control is duplicated. Type II: Length. See Flugsport , No. August Euler, Frankfurt a. In Euler secured Voisin rights for Germany. In he took out a patent for a design of his own. In the summer of he built a successful monoplane, in the autumn of the same year a triplane.

Existing models are as follows:—. Fokker-Aeroplanbau, G. Capacity: See Dutch. Founded by H. Grade, who was the first man in Germany to fly with a German machine. During Grades had a considerable vogue, but since then have not been prominent. Goedecker, Flugmaschinen-Werke, Niederwalluf a.

Harlan Werke, G. Established , turned into present Company, Output capacity about 50 machines a year. Jatho Flugzeugwerke, G. Karl Jatho built his first aeroplane in , and has produced machines at intervals ever since. Emile Jeannin, Flugzeugbau, G. Kondor Flugzeugwerke G.

Fabrik auf dem Flugplatz. Capacity: 30 or so a year. Planes dart V form. Constructor: J. This old-established motor car firm commenced to build aeroplanes in Capacity: 20 a year. Deutsche Flugzeugwerke G. This is one of the most important and successful aviation works in Germany.

Capacity: from 80 to machines a year. Length, 23 feet 7 m. Max Oertz, Yachtwerft, Reiherstieg b. Famous yacht builder. Commenced aeroplane construction in Existing models as below. Capacity about 25 machines a year. Gustav Otto, Flugmaschinenwerke, Schleissheimer Str.

Started building in Present max. Flugtechnische und mechanische Werke vorm. Commenced building with a 6-decker in Rumpler, Luftfahrzeugbau G. Established by E. Rumpler and R. Haessner for the construction in Germany of Etrich see Austria monoplanes. These now vary considerably from the original Etrich. Capacity at present about to machines a year. Standard models are as follows:—. Richard Schelies, Conventstrasse 5 und 5b, Hamburg Flying Station, etc. Gustav Schulze, Flugzeug Werke, Burg b.

Schulze began to build in light monoplanes, generally along Santos-Dumont lines. Maximum present capacity about 12 machines a year. Union Flugzeugwerke G. Capital , marks. Capacity of works: 20 machines a year. Flugmaschine Wright, G. Company formed to trade in German rights for the Wright Bros. Considerable departures have been made from the U. Capacity of works a year. L 9 reported sold to Turkey, April, Of these Unger is merely a project.

Veeh has been talked about for four years, but has never reached completion. All private ones capable of holding Zeppelins are subsidised. The system of employing 2 ballonets has been borrowed from the Parseval type, and presumably the Parseval system of working the automatic valves has also been adopted.

In all other features, these ships appear to resemble the French Lebaudy type, the shape of the hulls being rather better. M II built , re-constructed Re-built to details as above. When the "Motorluftschiff Studien Gesellschaft" was formed at the instigation of the German Emperor, a committee was formed to acquire an experimental airship of the most promising type. Major Von Parseval's first airship was selected, and since that time the above company has confined itself to improving this type, and to making exhaustive and costly researches, all of which have been embodied in successive ships.

The characteristic feature of every one of these craft is its unequalled portability. Almost all other so-called Non-rigid vessels distribute the load by means of a long girder which also serves as a car. This girder is awkward to pack up and transport.

Parseval uses a comparatively small car, and distributes the weight by hanging it further below the balloon than usual, and also by using 2 ballonets which are placed one near each end of the gas bag. These 2 ballonets enable the ship to be trimmed by merely pumping air into either at the expense of the other. Another essential feature of the type is the system by which the valves are worked automatically.

At the present time there is no other system of valve working so reliable as this. A third essential feature of the class is the use of a swinging car, in such a manner that pitching, due to alterations of propeller thrust, is automatically checked by an alteration of the position of the centre of gravity.

A fourth feature is the use of limp propeller blades. A propeller of this type is very easily packed up. Of the above, the Experimental is no longer in existence, P. Length, feet 60 m. Of rubber-proofed material in longitudinal strips. Pressure in ballonets and gas bag, 30 mm. This vessel was somewhat altered on being bought by the Society. Her essential principle is that she can be taken to pieces in a few minutes, and carried in a truck. Her main feature is that she has a ballonet at each end.

This is described in the case of type A P. This class rise with the forward ballonet empty, and inclined up by the bow. The propeller is similar to that of P. The car also is mounted on wire runners. Built Station: Bitterfeld. The car is at present in Deutsches Museum, Munich. This is maintained for about two-thirds of its length, when it begins to taper to a point at the stern.

Made of 2 layers of transverse strips of rubber proofed material, crossing each other diagonally. Fitted with a tearing strip. Owing to this disposition, the trim can be altered, and steering effected in the vertical plane by filling either more than the other. Pressure in the ballonets and gas bag, 20 mm. Daimler placed at one side of the car to give more room. When stopped, the fabric of which they are made hangs down limply; when running, these flaps fly out under centrifugal force.

Width 4. Made of nickel steel, U bars, screwed together so as to take the pieces rapidly. The sides are lattice girders. The whole is boat shaped and covered with canvas. Contains motor, chart table; trail rope feet m. Wheel for horizontal steering at the bow. It is capable of swinging horizontally on wires running over rollers. Whereas without this device a forward swing of the car would lift the nose to a possibly dangerous extent, the free motion of the car shifts the centre of the gravity forward and so preserves stability.

In horizontal plane, by a rudder of Two fixed horizontal planes are placed at the rear end of the gas bag above the central line. She also remained at a height of 4, feet 1, m. She can be transported in 1 railway truck or 2 pair horse wagons, and be assembled and filled ready for ascent within 3 hours of arrival by train.

Station: Metz. Volume , , c. Daimler motors, placed one behind the other. Maximum length , feet 50 m. A remarkably successful type of small dirigible. A small P. Station, Koenigsberg. Maximum length , feet 79 m. Station: Berlin. Maximum length, feet 46 m. Length , feet m. Placed one behind the other. Petrol carried, kil. Oil, kil. Re-constructed Proposed further re-construction in Useful lift.

All but two of the bags are always full, and when the gas expands it flows into the remaining two, which are nearly empty at sea level, and full at feet 2, m. A centrifugal pump is used for distributing the gas. There are 14 gas bags. The propellers are at the ends of the car, driven through 1 set of reduction gear.

About k. Also see Propellers. The hull is built of special 3-ply wood made of Russian white fir; this wood is pressed into channel bars, angle bars, and all other requisite shapes. The strength of the hull is such that it can be supported at the ends without damage; its lightness is such that although the ship is nearly half as large again as Zeppelin II , yet the hull weighs about 3 tons less.

Designed by Prof. This has necessitated extensive alterations and much delay. The features of this type are—A rigid framework of aluminium, a number of drum-shaped gas bags, and a thin outer cover. At the end of March, , the total of Zeppelins , limit and building was 16, including one number 18 for Austria. Of these several had come to grief in various ways, and the actual total at the date mentioned, was:—.

All are on the lines of the above plan, differing only in minor details, such as the provision of a cabin amidships, etc. Details see the following pages. At end of March, , these included:—1 Astra hydro. Farman , and probably some others. Owing to the war, details are unobtainable. Rivista del T.

Touring Club Italiano , 14 v. Monte Napoleone, Milan. Annuario dell' Aeronautica Touring Club Italiano , 14 v. The Battaglione Aviatori has its headquarters at Turin. In July, , it was re-organised along the following lines:—. In flying work the superior pilots are mostly using Bleriots ; the ordinary pilots Bleriot-Caproni , Bristol , Antonis , Deperdussins and Voisins.

Sheltered from all winds except westerly, by banks of trees. Numerous hangers. Mirafiori Turin. School machines confined to Asteria , Bleriot , Nieuport and Savary types. Treeless plain. Principal school machines Breguets and Farmans ; but some Bleriots and Caproni. Francesco al Campo. Farman machines. At present for officers trained in France. Aspirants commence with instruction in the theory of heavier than air machines, resistance of material and particular instruction in the various type of aero motors in use.

They are taken for flights as passengers. Special attention paid to teaching Gauchis Dessent. Much shorter course.

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